Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
What is AMD?
AMD is a age related degenerative retinal condition where the central part of retina gets affected specially in patients more than 60 years Who are at risk of having AMD?
Age is the most important risk factor for having AMD. The most important modifiable risk factor is smoking; hence it is strongly advised to stop the same when detected with AMD .Genetic factors along with environmental factors also play an important part as a risk for developing AMD.

What are signs of developing AMD?
Most important symptom in AMD is noticeable sudden blurring in central vision. Apart from visual blurring, any change in shapes of lines, images ( lines appearing out of shape), appearance of black spot in the centre of field can be early signs of AMD What are tests used to diagnose AMD When an ophthalmologist suspects a patient to have AMD various tests are done. The tests can be invasive or non-invasive. The most common test done to diagnose AMD is called OCT( optical coherence tomogram) which is a non- invasive test. Not only does it diagnose treatable forms of AMD but also helps in follow up.
Do all forms of AMD need treatment?
AMD can present in 2 forms. One is called the dry variant whereby no active treatment is needed. Patient with dry form(non-exudative) form are requested to have periodical review. The exudative form( leaking variety) needs early intervention and treatment. The earlier the treatment is started, better are chances of regaining vision
What treatments are possible?
The most common type of treatment needed for a leaking type of AMD is injections which are given inside the eye. The procedure is painless and generally performed inside the operation theatre. Other treatment like laser are also used to treat AMD
How often do we need to repeat injections?
The most common protocol followed is to have an injection every month for 3 consecutive months. Thereafter depending on the disease process, injection may be repeated. Sometimes an injection may be needed many months after the initial 3 injections. It is important to have a regular follow up during the course of injection and also after the same.

Will I gain the vision that I lost?
The earlier the disease is diagnosed , better are the chances of a better vision. Treatment may help in restoring some part of vision lost, although it may not reach pre-treatment levels. Main aim is to prevent further loss and stabilize the disease process.
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